Gujarati an Indo-Aryan language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. Gujarati is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is also the language of the large Gujarati community in Mumbai, India.
There are about 46 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 23rd most spoken language in the world. Of these, roughly 45.5 million reside in India, 150 000 in Uganda, 250 000 in Tanzania, 50 000 in Kenya and roughly 100 000 in Pakistan. A considerable population of Gujarati speakers exists in North America and the United Kingdom as well. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan" and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India"
Linguistic of Gujarati evolved from Sanskrit
Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit. The traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages: (1) Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit), (2) Middle IA (various Prakrits and Apabhramshas), and (3) New IA (modern languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, etc.). Another view can be presented in terms of successive family, tree splits. According to this view, Gujarati is assumed to have separated from other IA languages in three stages: (1) IA languages split into Northern, Eastern, and Central divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as stops becoming voiced in the Northern and dental retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern; (2) Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani; and (3) Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century (Dave 1948, Pandit 1966).
Historical stages of Gujarati
Gujarati is customarily divided in the following three historical stages: Old Gujarati (from the mid-12th century to 15th century), Middle Gujarati (from the mid-15th century to the beginning of the 19th century), and Modern Gujarati. What is labelled as Old Gujarati, however, has been referred to differently by different scholars. Tessitori (1914-1916), on the basis of 14 and 15th century literary texts, came to the conclusion that at the time there was on a single language covering the region currently occupied by Gujarati and Rajasthani. He termed the common language Old Western Rajasthani.