Persian and Arabic influence on the Gujarati language

Gujarat was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims. As a consequence the language was changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian's conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically indigenous or continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially grammatically out of place, and that in comparison while Perso-Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized.

Many Persian prefixes and suffixes did seep in, and Arabic words often do stand on their 3-consonantal root system, but nonetheless owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or know as loans, and more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. davo - claim, faydo - benefit, natijo - result, and humlo - attack, all carry Gujarati's singular masculine gender marker, o. khanu? - compartment, has the neuter u?. Aside from easy pairing with the auxiliary karvu?, a few words have made a complete transition of verbification: kabulvu? - to admit (fault), kharidvu? - to buy, kharacvu? - to spend (money), gujarvu? - to pass. The last three are definite part and parcel.

Thus, while Indo-Aryan languages like Marathi, Nepali, and Bengali are conservative in their lexicons, central and western/northwestern tongues like Punjabi, Hindustani, Sindhi, and Gujarati have been Persianized. The most resounding occurrence of this was that of the Delhi dialect of Hindustani; Delhi being the seat of Muslim power. Its Persianization and subsequent dePersianization and Sanskritization lead to the reality of the two registers if not languages of Urdu and Hindi, which became the national languages of Pakistan and India. Gujarati is not split in this way, but nonetheless its loaning is to be noted.

Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some instances with its cognates: marad-martya - man, mortal; stan-sthan - place, land; i-iya - adjectival suffix. Zoroastrian Persian refugees known as Parsis also speak an accordingly Persianized form of Gujarati. Currently the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary, so it should be noted that Gujarati's singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu a, neuter u? groups into a as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu/Persian z is not upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j.